Dr. ROBERT K. BROWNE
MANAGEMENT BOARD MEMBER
- ASSOCIATE EDITOR
MIDDLE EAST CHAPTER - AMPHIBIAN AND REPTILE
Dr. Browne initiated the Internet based Amphibian and Reptile Conservation journal in
2011. He is currently President / International Co-ordinator of Amphibian and Reptile
He also produced the ARC
Issues on Neurergus Salamanders, Giant
Salamanders, and Conservation Breeding.
Dr. Robert K.
Browne has an
unusually wide range of experience and publications in scientific fields concerning
herpetolological conservation. His response to the global biodiversity conservation crisis has focused on the
sutainable management of amphibian and reptile biodiversity. Robert also has extensive experience
in Internet marketing and business management.
Working with zoos
in Australia, the USA, Europe, and as a research officer for the IUCN has led Robert to work with
collaborative conservation programs for threatened herpetofauna in the USA, Peoples Republic of
China, Australia, Russian Federation, Islamic Republic of Iran, and
Robert has experience in a wide range of research fields supporting herpetological
conservation and environmental sustainability. He has published in the scientific fields of
nutrition, pathology, parasitology, larval growth and development, husbandry, thermo-biology,
reproduction technologies, and facility design.
Robert pioneered the use of carotonoids, highly unsaturated fatty acids, and
UVB to prevent pathologies associated with nutritional deficiencies in
Robert’s PhD research in the late 1990s was seminal to the development of
gene banking to the preserve genetic diversity of threatened amphibian species, where he developed
the first reproduction technology providing fertile amphibian eggs from cryopreserved
Since then his research has led to major advances in the use of hormones to
promote amphibian reproduction that led to the first use of artificial fertilization to produce
tadpoles for release of a Critically Endangered amphibian, the Wyoming toad
(Bufo baxteri). These techniques have since been adopted for a number of other Critically
Endangered amphibian species including the Missisippi gopher frog (Lithobates sevosa).
Robert’s collaborative work with Nashville Zoo at Grassmere, USA, on the North
American giant salamander (Hellbender; Cryptobranchus
alleganiensis) in 2011 has supported the
development of the first genetically representative gene bank for any
collaboration with the Russian Institute of Cell Biophysics from 2009-present has resulted in the
publication of articles describing the hormonal induction and cryopreservation of amphibian sperm,
neither of which had previously been achieved, and the use of new methods for amphibian
Recently, Robert has focussed on conservation programs for Critically
Endangered amphibians giant salamanders (Cryptobranchids) in the Peoples Republic of China, Japan,
and the USA, and on Neurergus newts in Iran and
collaborative work in Iran and Iraq with the iconic and Critically Endangered Loristan newt
(Neurergus kaiseri) and Kurdistan newt (N.
microspilotus) has resulted in have provided new perspectives concerning their
addition to his work in research and other international projects for the conservation of
amphibians, Robert is establishing a sustainability and biodiversity conservation project based at
Belize. Roberts considers that amphibian and reptile conservation must
be embedded within sustainability to achieve its long term goals.
Mobaraki A, Amiri M, Alvandi R, Tehrani ME, Kia HZ, Khoshnamvand A, Bali A and
Browne RK. A conservation reassessment of the
Critically Endangered, Lorestan newt Neurergus kaiseri
(Schmidt 1952). (In review)
Browne RK, Li H, Robinson H,
Uteshev VK, Shishova NR, McGinnity D, Nofs S. Figiel CR, Mansour N, Agnew D, Carleton CL, Wu M,
Gakhova EN, Byrne PG, Cosson J. Sperm motility in externally fertilising fish and amphibians. (In
Browne RK, Li H, Wang Z, Hime
P, McMillan A, Wu M, Diaz R, Hongxing Z, McGinnity D, and Briggler JT. 2014. The giant salamanders
(Cryptobranchidae): Part B. Biology, ecology and reprodiuction. Amphibian and Reptile Conservation.
5(4): 30-50. (In press)
Conde DA, Colcher F, Pearce-Kelly P, Flesness N, Byers O, Gusset M,
Browne RK, Jones OR. 2013 Zoos through the
Lens of the IUCN Red List: A global metapopulation approach to support conservation breeding
programs. PLoS ONE 8(12): e80311. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0080311
David J. Gower, Thomas Doherty-Bone,Simon P. Loader, Mark Wilkinson, Marcel T.
Kouete, Benjamin Tapley, Frances Orton, Olivia Z. Daniel, Felicity Wynne, Edmund Flach,Hendrik
Mu¨ller, Michele Menegon, Ian Stephen, Browne
RK, Mathew C. Fisher, Andrew A. Cunningham, and Trenton W. J. Garner. 2013.
Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis infection and lethal
Chytridiomycosis in caecilian amphibians (Gymnophiona). EcoHealth. 10(2):
Al-Sheikhly OF, Nader IA, Rastegar-Pouyani N, Browne RK. 2013. New localities of the Kurdistan newt
Neurergus microspilotus and Lake Urmia newt
Neurergus crocatus (Caudata: Salamandridae) in Iraq.
Amphibian and Reptile Conservation 6(4):42–49.
Rastegar-Pouyani N, Takesh M, Fattahi A, Sadeghi M, Khorshidi F, and
Browne RK. 2013. Ecology of Kurdistan newt (Neurergus microspilotus: Salamandridae): Population and conservation
with an appraisal of the potential impact of urbanization. Amphibian and Reptile Conservation
Shishova NV, Uteshev VK, PS Nikolai, Kuznetsova EA, AK Svetlana,
Browne RK, Gakhova EN. 2013. The quality and
fertility of sperm from postmortem European common frogs (Rana
temporaria) refrigerated over seven days. Zoo Biology. 2013 Apr 22. doi:
Doherty-Bone TM, Gonwouo NL, Hirschfeld H T. Ohst T, Weldon C, Perkins M, Kouete
MT, Browne RK, Loader SP, Gower DJ, Wilkinson
MW, Rödel MO, Penner J, Barej MF, Schmitz A, J. Plötner J, Cunningham AA. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in amphibians of Cameroon, including
the first records of infected caecilian hosts. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. 102:
Rödel MO, Doherty-Bone TM, Kouete MT, Jaanzen P, Garrett K,
Browne RK, Gonwouo NL, Sandberger L.
2012. A new small Phrynobatrachus (Amphibia:
Anura: Phrynobatrachidae) from southern Cameroon. Zootaxa
Browne RK, Li H, Wang Z, Hime
P, McMillan A, Wu M, Diaz R, Hongxing Z, McGinnity D, and Briggler JT. 2012. The giant salamanders
(Cryptobranchidae): Part A. palaeontology, phylogeny, genetics, and morphology. Amphibian and
Reptile Conservation. 5(4):17-29.
Uteshev VK, Shishova NV, Browne
RK, Gakhova EN. 2012. Hormonal induction of sperm from amphibians with
Rana temporaria and Bufo bufo as anuran models. Reproduction, Fertility and Development.
Zippel K, Johnson K, Gagliardo R, Gibson R, McFadden M, Browne RK, Martinez C, Townsend E. 2011. The Amphibian Ark: a
global community for ex situ conservation of amphibians. Herpetological Conservation and Biology
Browne RK, Hong L, McGinnity
D, Okada S, Zhenghuan W, Bodinof CM, Irwin KJ, McMillan A, Briggler JT. 2011. Survey techniques for
giant salamanders and other aquatic Caudata. Amphibian and Reptile Conservation 5(4):
Browne RK, Wolfram K,
Pereboom Z JJM, Garcia G. 2011. Zoo based amphibian research and conservation breeding programs.
Amphibian and Reptile Conservation 5(3): 1-14.
Verschooren E, Browne RK,
Vercammen F, Pereboom JJM. 2011. UV-B and the early growth and skeletal development of the
Amazonian milk frog (Trachycephalus resinifictrix)
from metamorphosis. Journal of Physiology and Pathophysiology 2(3): 34-42.
Browne RK, Li H, Robertson H,
Uteshev VK, Shishova NR, McGinnity D, Nofs S, Figiel CR, Mansour N, Lloyd RE, Agnew D, Carleton CL,
Wu M, Gakhova EN. 2011. Reptile and amphibian conservation through gene banking and other
reproduction technologies. Russian J. Herpetology. 18(3): 165-174.
Browne RK., Figiel C. 2011.
Chapter 2. Crypreservation in Amphibians” In: Cryopreservation of Aquatic Species. Vol 8.
Edited by Dr. Terrence Tiersch and Dr. Patricia Mazik. World Aquaculture Society, Baton Rouge, La
Hardcover, ~450 pages.
Shishova NR., Uteshev VK., Kaurova SA., Browne RK., Gakhova EN. 2010.
Cryopreservation of hormonally induced sperm for the conservation of threatened amphibians with
Rana temporaria as a model research species. Theriogenology. 75(2):
Antwis RE, Browne RK. 2009. Review.
Ultraviolet radiation and Vitamin D3 in Amphibian Health, Behaviour, Diet and Conservation.
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology – part B 154(2): 184-190.
Lermen D, Blömeke
B, Browne RK, Clarke A, Dyce PW, Fixemer T, Fuhr GR, Holt WV, Jewgenow K, Lloyd RE, Lötters S,
Paulus M, Reid GM, Rapoport DH, Rawson D, Ringleb J, Ryder OA, Spörl G, Schmitt T, Veith M, Müller
P. 2009. Meeting Review. Cryobanking of viable biomaterials: implementation of new strategies for
conservation purposes. Molecular Ecology 18: 1030–1033.
Li H, Vaughan
MJ, Browne RK. 2009. A complex enrichment diet improves growth and health in the
endangered Wyoming toad (Bufo
baxteri). Zoo Biology. 28(3):197-213.
Browne RK, Gaikhorst G, Vitali S, Robert JD, Matson P. 2007. Exogenous hormones induce poor
rates of oviposition in the anurans, Litoria aurea and L. moorei. Applied Herpetology 5:
Browne, RK, Smith K. 2007. A new pipefish, Stigmatopora narinosa (Syngnathidae)
from South Australia. Memoirs of Museum Victoria. 6:1-6.
Browne RK, Baker, JK, Connolly R. 2007. Seadragons,
seahorses, and pipefish. In: Natural History of Gulf St Vincent. Eds, S. Bryars, S.A. Shepherd, P.
Harbison, I. Kirkegaard. Royal Society of South Australia. 450 pp.
Zippel K. 2007. Reproduction and larval rearing. Use
of amphibians in research, laboratory, or classroom settings. Institute for Laboratory Animal
Research (ILAR), Volume 48 (3): 214-234.
Browne RK, Zippel, Odum AR, Herman T. 2007. Physical facilities and associated services. Use of amphibians in
research, laboratory, or classroom settings. Institute for Laboratory Animal Research (ILAR),
Volume 48 (3): 188-202.
Browne RK, Li H. 2006. Sexually mediated shedding of Myxobolus fallax spores during
spermiation of Litoria
fallax (anura). Diseases of Aquatic
Organisms. 72(1): 71-75.
Browne RK, Seratt J, Vance C, Kouba A. 2006. Hormonal induction with priming and In vitro fertilization
increases egg numbers and quality in the Wyoming toad (Bufo
baxteri). Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology
Browne RK, Seratt J, Li H, Kouba A. 2006. Progesterone improves the number and quality of hormonally
induced fowler toad (Bufo
fowleri) oocytes. Reproductive Biology and
Browne RK, Edwards DL. 2003. The effect of temperature on the growth and development of green and
golden bell frogs (Litoria
aurea). Journal of Thermal Biology. 28:
Browne RK, Pomering M, Hamer AJ. 2003. High density effects on the
growth, development and survival of Litoria aurea tadpoles. Aquaculture. 215 (1-4):
Browne RK, Mahony M, Clulow J. 2002. A comparison of
sucrose, saline, and saline with egg-yolk diluents on the cryopreservation of cane toad
sperm. Cryobiology. 44 (3): 251-257.
Browne RK, Davis J, Pomering M, Clulow J. 2002. Storage of cane toad
(Bufo marinus) sperm for 6 days at 0ºC with subsequent cryopreservation. Reproduction, Fertility
and Development. 14 (5): 267-273.
Browne RK, Clulow J, Manony M. 2002. The short-term
storage and cryopreservation of spermatozoa from hylid and myobatrachid frogs. Cryo Letters
Browne RK, Clulow J, Mahony M. 2002. The effect of
saccharides on the post-thaw recovery of cane toad (Bufo marinus) spermatozoa. Cryo Letters. 23(2):
Browne RK, Scheltinga DM, Pomering M, Mahony M. 2002. Testicular
myxosporidiasis in anurans, with a description
of Myxobolus fallax n. sp. Systematic Parasitology. 52(2): 97-110.
Browne RK, Clulow J, Mahony M. 2001. Short-term storage of
cane toad (Bufo marinus) gametes. Reproduction. 121(1): 167-173.
Browne RK, Clulow J, Mahony M, Clark A. 1998. Successful recovery of motility and fertility of
cryopreserved cane toad (Bufo
marinus) sperm. Cryobiology. 37(4):